Smallpox what is it what are its causes and what is the cure

If you are lucky enough to find a doctor that still does the vaccine. I would get the vaccine every 6 months and never had a problem. I was taking Naproxen for a week bfore these painful ulcers appeared!

Smallpox what is it what are its causes and what is the cure

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Species Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirusthe family Poxviridae and subfamily chordopoxvirinae. Evolution The date of the appearance of smallpox is not settled. It most likely evolved from a terrestrial African rodent virus between 68, and 16, years ago.

One clade was the variola major strains the more clinically severe form of smallpox which spread from Asia between and 1, years ago. A second clade included both alastrim minor a phenotypically mild smallpox described from the American continents and isolates from West Africa which diverged from an ancestral strain between 1, and 6, years before present.

This clade further diverged into two subclades at least years ago. If the mutation rate is assumed to be similar to that of the herpesvirusesthe divergence date between variola from Taterapox has been estimated to be 50, years ago.

Better estimates of mutation rates in these viruses are needed. Diversification of strains only occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries. Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: Variola virus infects only humans in nature, although primates and other animals have been infected in a laboratory setting.

Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature. Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses in that they replicate in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than in the nucleus.

In order to replicate, poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA virusesthe most important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

Both enveloped and unenveloped virions are infectious. The viral envelope is made of modified Golgi membranes containing viral-specific polypeptides, including hemagglutinin. It was transmitted from one person to another primarily through prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected person, usually within a distance of 1.

Rarely, smallpox was spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses, and trains. The virus can be transmitted throughout the course of the illness, but this happened most frequently during the first week of the rash, when most of the skin lesions were intact.

The overall rate of infection was also affected by the short duration of the infectious stage. In temperate areas, the number of smallpox infections was highest during the winter and spring. In tropical areas, seasonal variation was less evident and the disease was present throughout the year.

Vaccination immunity declined over time and was probably lost within thirty years. Microscopicallypoxviruses produce characteristic cytoplasmic inclusions, the most important of which are known as Guarnieri bodiesand are the sites of viral replication.

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Guarnieri bodies are readily identified in skin biopsies stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and appear as pink blobs. They are found in virtually all poxvirus infections but the absence of Guarnieri bodies could not be used to rule out smallpox.

All orthopoxviruses exhibit identical brick-shaped virions by electron microscopy. Definitive laboratory identification of variola virus involved growing the virus on chorioallantoic membrane part of a chicken embryo and examining the resulting pock lesions under defined temperature conditions.

Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays ELISAwhich measured variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and antigen were also developed to assist in the diagnosis of infection. Chickenpox and smallpox could be distinguished by several methods.

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Smallpox what is it what are its causes and what is the cure

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Get the CD, Book or Download the Glossary. English Glossary of Causes of Death and other Archaic Medical Terms. Delirium is an abrupt change in the brain that causes mental confusion and emotional disruption.

It makes it difficult to think, remember, sleep, pay attention, and more. You might experience the.

This disease is suspected to have been around for thousands of years. It usually spreads through contaminated food and water, and targets the human nervous system, which causes symptoms that usually affect the legs and lead to paralysis.

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