Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens.
IFN- secretion in cells treated with both antibodies was almost negligible. Splenocytes were isolated from the mice that had been immunized twice at a 3-week interval with nonadjuvanted or adjuvanted Greenflu-S 0.
Data shown are representative of three independent experiments. Mice immunized with 0. However, differences in body weight change among the groups were detected. Reducing the vaccine dose decreased protective efficacy; thus, the adjuvant effects were more striking.
At doses of 0. The protective efficacy of the adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted vaccines at 0. CIAadjuvanted Greenflu-S reduces the mortality and morbidity of mice upon lethal infection with influenza virus.
Mice were immunized twice at a 2-week interval with 0. Four weeks after immunization, mice were challenged with homologous influenza virus and monitored for survival a and change in body weight b for 15 days. Data shown in b are presented as the means that were obtained from each group of mice.
Survival data for different mouse groups were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test. Symbols and andrespectively, when compared with the group given the nonadjuvanted vaccine.
The ability of the influenza vaccines to clear the virus in the lungs was evaluated in the mice given the 0. Following two immunizations, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus, and virus titers in the lungs were measured 4 days after challenge. Virus titers in the lungs from mice immunized with the adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted vaccines were significantly lower compared with the lung virus titers of mice in the PBS and CIA06 adjuvant control groups.
Further, among the vaccinated groups, the CIAadjuvanted vaccine was the most effective in clearing the virus from the lungs Figure 5. Decrease in lung virus titers of immunized mice after viral challenge.
Mice were immunized twice with nonadjuvanted or adjuvanted Greenflu-S 0. Four days after infection, lung samples were collected, and virus titers were determined by plaque assays. Persistence of the Protective Immunity Elicited by the CIAAdjuvanted Influenza Vaccine To determine the persistence of the protective immunity induced by the adjuvanted vaccines, antibody titers were compared 4 and 24 weeks after the second immunization.
Mice were immunized with the influenza vaccine alone or in combination with alum or dLOS or combinations of the two at various ratios. Four weeks after immunization, influenza virus-specific antibody titers were highest in the mice that received the vaccine combined with CIA However, changes in the ratio between the two components of CIA06 resulted in lower antibody titers.
The antibody titers remained elevated at 24 weeks in all experimental groups. HI antibody titers in the mouse sera revealed a pattern that was similar to the serum IgG antibody titers Figure 6 b. To evaluate the protective efficacy of the immunity induced by the adjuvanted vaccines, the mice were challenged 24 weeks after immunization and observed for morbidity and mortality.
All experimental groups survived the viral challenge with an exception of the adjuvant control group, all of which died by day 8 Figure 6 c. Nevertheless, differences were observed in the percent of body weight change among the groups.
Mice given the nonadjuvanted vaccine experienced the highest percent of body weight loss The animals given the CIA adjuvanted vaccine exhibited the lowest percent of body weight loss 7. For comparison, the AddaVax-adjuvanted vaccine showed These data suggested that the CIA06 adjuvant is capable of providing a long-lasting protective immunity against the influenza virus and that the ratio of dLOS and alum is important for achieving the optimal adjuvant effect.
Mice were immunized twice with Greenflu-S 0. Various ratios of dLOS and alum were used for comparison. Sera were obtained 4 and 24 weeks after immunization, and influenza virus-specific IgG antibody titers a and HI antibody titers b were determined. Body weight changes of mice relative to their initial body weight were calculated for each group at day 5 after infection, when body weight loss was greatest.
Safety of CIAAdjuvanted Greenflu-S against Excessive Inflammatory Response upon Viral Infection Cytokine storm refers to excessive inflammatory responses induced by viral infection and has been previously associated with a viral respiratory infection in children immunized with the respiratory syncytial virus RSV vaccine [ 1819 ].Responses are highly dependent on vaccine type, age, priming and vaccination history Current vaccines also stimulate other desirable immune responses but to a limited degree • Responses differ by vaccine type and priming history Development of next -generation influenza vaccines .
A dual approach of expanding innate immunity by administering the FL gene, together with a cytokine that enhances adaptive immune responses, IL-2, IL, or IL, generated the most potent immune response at the lowest doses of Nef antigen.
responses. Data suggests that innate immune responses to the DNA vaccine plasmid itself contribute to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, however the underlying mechanisms responsible remain unclear.
In this dissertation, we investigate the role of innate immunity in shaping antigen-specific adaptive immune responses following DNA vaccination. Thus oil-in-water emulsions are excellent adjuvants for influenza vaccines, including both surface glycoprotein vaccines and split vaccines, but their ability to elicit cytokine responses, in particular γ-interferon responses, can be improved by additionally including an .
To further engineer the immune response in vivo, we compared the induction and regulation of immune responses from the codelivery of chemokine (IL-8, interferon-γ-inducible protein [γIP], macrophage inhibitory protein-1α [MIP-1α], and RANTES) genes with codelivery of cytokine genes.
“Study on Immune responses of Cytokine Adjuvented DNA vaccine (genes coding for structural proteins) for FMD delivered by cationic PLG micro particles”. Objectives: To clone gene coding for structural .