Capacity to cope prediction, preparation, prevention Famous Geologist Paul Mann wrote a report in that a major earthquake could happen here, and that the damage could be catastrophic. The building quality was also proved to be very poor, and most loss of life was due to building collapse. First, major transport links were completely knocked out by the earthquake. The port was damaged by liquefaction and lateral spreading, and cranes and debris fell into the sea.
Droughts are not extremely frequent. A drought is said to occur when a region receives consistent below average precipitation. However, droughts in the Sahel region seem to occur a little more frequently due to reduced rainfall.
A drought can last for as long as several years or as short as several days. However, in the case of the Sahel, it has been long. In comparison to other hazards we are studying, droughts last for the longest amount of time.
As a drought persists, the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and it's impact on the local population gradually increase. It is very slow, because it takes many years of little to no precipitation for drought to occur.
There is some sense of regularity to droughts as they tend to fall in line with seasonal weather. Droughts tend to occur in the most arid times of the year, however they may be present anytime, if there is a severe lack of rainfall.
Environmental causes of drought: The diagram also shows the direction of wind currents and can be used to explain the lack of rainfall in the Sahel. This means that areas above the Sahel get rainfall, whilst the Sahel is placed in regions of Subtropical high, which is indicative of Dryness throughout the seasons.
As well as the ITCZ, cold offshore currents can contribute to the formation of drought. The cold currents flow towards the equator, and as they pass over the Sahel limit the amount of condensation in the overlying air, thereby contributing to arid conditions. Potential factors attributing to Drought: Coupled with the incredibly reduced rainfall in the region, there may exist other factors which may have potentially contributed to the severity of the drought.
One such factor could be the impact of the people living in the area. As seen in the Sahel Rainfall Index below, the Sahel experienced a period of relatively high rainfall from the s through to the end of the s. Due to this increased rainfall, and thereby increased abundance of food, families, crops and livestock may have flourished.
As families grew larger, so would the demand for food. Socio-culturally, the commonality of polygamy in the region may have acted as a multiplier for increased population, causing family numbers to skyrocket.
Thus as rainfall began to decrease, the demand for food remained ever-present. This would eventually lead to over grazing of the land, and over farming. The reduction of plantlife across the Sahel would mean less vegetation cover for the soil, increasing the susceptibility of the soil to wind erosion.
This poses a new danger as highly eroded land means if a period of high rainfall were to occur, it would travel quickly overland as soil absorption would be extremely poor. However in relation to drought-effects, a lack of water absorption by the soil means that even if rainfall were to occur, it is highly unlikely the land would recover due to its dryness and lack of topsoil.The flooding led to some power outages in parts of the city and the municipal corporation warned of more such cuts if water levels continued to rise.
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This entry deals mainly with geophysical hazards (geological, geomorphological, and atmospheric) in developing countries. A brief mention of the role of international agencies in LEDC is also given.