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Algae are aquatic, plant-like organisms. They encompass a variety of simple structures, from single-celled phytoplankton floating in the water, to large seaweeds macroalgae attached to the ocean floor 2.
Algae can Chlorophyll and polar groups found residing in oceans, lakes, rivers, ponds and even in snow, anywhere on Earth. So what makes algae only plant-like, instead of plants?
While algae are often called primitive plants, other terms, like protists, can be used 4. Protist may be a more accurate term, particularly for the single-celled phytoplankton 8.
However, larger, more complex algae, including kelp and chara, are often mistaken for submerged plants. The difference between these seaweeds and submerged plants is in their structure. Macroalgae are simpler, and attach themselves to the seabed with a holdfast instead of true roots 4. Aquatic plants, whether floating, submerged, or emergent starting in the water and growing out have specialized parts such as roots, stems and leaves 3.
Most plants also have vascular structures xylem and phloemwhich carry nutrients throughout the plant. While algae contain chlorophyll like plantsthey do not have these specialized structures 8.
Algae are sometimes considered protists, while other times they are classified as plants or choromists. Phytoplankton are made up of single-celled algae and cyanobacteria. As algae can be single-celled, filamentous string-like or plant-like, they are often difficult to classify. Most organizations group algae by their primary color green, red, or brownthough this creates more problems than it solves 4.
The various species of algae are vastly different from each other, not only in pigmentation, but in cellular structure, complexity, and chosen environment 4,5.
As such, algal taxonomy is still under debate, with some organizations classifying algae under different kingdoms, including Plantae, Protozoa and Chromista 4,6,8,9.
While the overarching kingdom classification is not always agreed upon, the species, genus, family, class and phylum of each alga generally are 6. To further complicate this nomenclature, single-celled algae often fall under the broad category of phytoplankton.
Phytoplankton are microorganisms that drift about in water. They are single-celled, but at times they can grow in colonies large enough to be seen by the human eye Phytoplankton are photosynthetic, meaning they have the ability to use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into energy While they are plant-like in this ability, phytoplankton are not plants.
Instead, phytoplankton can be divided into two classes, algae and cyanobacteria These two classes have the common ability of photosynthesis, but have different physical structures.
Regardless of their taxonomy, all phytoplankton contain at least one form of chlorophyll chlorophyll A and thus can conduct photosynthesis for energy.
Phytoplankton, both algae and cyanobacteria, can be found in fresh or saltwater As they need light to photosynthesize, phytoplankton in any environment will float near the top of the water, where sunlight reaches Most freshwater phytoplankton are made up of green algae and cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae Marine phytoplankton are mainly comprised of microalgae known as dinoflagellates and diatoms, though other algae and cyanobacteria can be present.
Microalgae There are thousands of species of planktonic algae, or microalgae, floating in water all over the world. Green algae, diatoms and dinoflagellates are the most well-known, though other microalgae species include coccolithophores, cryptomonads, golden algae, yellow-green algae and euglenoids 1.
While diatoms and dinoflagellates are forms of planktonic algae, they can be incorrectly classified as red or brown algae 9.
Red and brown algae are not considered phytoplankton as they are not free-floating. True red and brown algae are rarely single-celled, and remain attached to rock or other structures instead of drifting at the surface 1, Multicellular green algae is also not considered phytoplankton for the same reasons.
To be considered a phytoplankton, the algae needs to use chlorophyll A in photosynthesis, be single-celled or colonial a group of single-cellsand live and die floating in the water, not attached to any substrate 1. Phytoplankton come in many different structures, but all except for cyanobacteria are algae.
Blue-Green Algae Despite their ability to conduct photosynthesis for energy, blue-green algae are a type of bacteria.
This means that they are single-celled, prokaryotic simple organisms. Prokaryotic means that the cyanobacteria do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles within their cell wall 5. Cyanobacteria are the only bacteria that contain chlorophyll A, a chemical required for oxygenic photosynthesis the same process used by plants and algae 1, This process uses carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to produce oxygen and glucose sugars for energy.
Chlorophyll A is used to capture the energy from sunlight to help this process.Chlorophyll molecules also have rings that are hydrophobic, meaning water fearing with carbonyl groups present near the end, making them polar or hydrophilic.
Chlorophyll molecules are held within a water soluble compound known as water soluble chlorophyll binding protein which is soluble in water but largely insoluble in non-polar alkanes and. Lesson regardbouddhiste.com 21 Activity Section – Lesson 2 –How do Algae grow?
Brief summary Aim: The overall aim of this lesson is to show how algae grow and the conditions in which. Mar 20, · Typically, carotene is first from the top, followed by xanthophyll, followed by chlorophyll a, and lastly chlorophyll b.
Carotene, the least polar, rises up the paper fastest. Chlorophyll b, the most polar, rises up the paper regardbouddhiste.com: Resolved. Chlorophyll b is a more polar (water-loving) pigment than the other pigments found in spinach extracts and is therefore more strongly attracted to the polar surface of the paper than to the nonpolar solvent.
|Algae, Phytoplankton and Chlorophyll - Environmental Measurement Systems||History of chromatography Chromatography was first employed in Russia by the Italian-born scientist Mikhail Tsvet in Since these components have different colors green, orange, and yellow, respectively they gave the technique its name.|
|What are Algae?||Anything related to plant life Chromatography Chromatography Chromatography is a method of separating the components of a mixture over time.|
|Pearson - The Biology Place||Up to 6 or 4 carbon atoms, organic acids are considered "short-chain organic acids", they have substantial solubility in water. Furthermore, they do not behave physiologically like other fatty acids since they are more rapidly digested and absorbed in the intestinal tract and have unique properties in regulating sodium and water absorption through the mucosal epithelium.|
|Chlorophyll a - Wikipedia||Its name is derived from Greek: Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue and red but poorly in the green portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, hence the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues like plant leaves.|
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A vast, icy continent at the very south of the planet, the Antarctic is a land of extremes. Larger than Europe and nearly twice the size of Australia, it is almost entirely buried beneath an ice sheet which covers around 99 percent of the land regardbouddhiste.com Antarctic ice sheet contains 90 percent of the world’s ice and around 70 percent of its freshwater.