For hundreds of years people have put some message in the type of clothing they wore. This was the moment when fashion appeared. Nevertheless, it is necessary to say that at the present moment fashion has a deeper influence on the life of people and possess more than just frivolous reasons for its existance. Clothing has become an integral part of self-realization of every person.
This facilitates an adversarial encounter, which is embedded in the traditional notion of a debate. Consider the question of whether schools should try to help students feel better about themselves. By now this topic has become sufficiently polarized that the vast majority of people who address themselves to it stand in one of two camps: In what follows, I try to show why most discussions of the theory and practice of self- esteem are unsatisfactory.
Part I reviews the available research, which contains unwelcome news for anyone who sees self-esteem as a key causal variable. Part II continues the critique of self-esteem by calling into question the values implicit in the concept.
Part III then turns the tables to look at the increasingly strident criticisms of self-esteem that are offered by conservative social critics and others.
I argue that the view of education from which such attacks emerge is even more misconceived than the practices being challenged.
This analysis leads me, finally, to a discussion of what might be more constructive than the usual arguments for and against self-esteem. Very few people in the field seem to have any feel for the empirical literature as a whole — what the evidence really says and how meaningful it is. Even before examining the results of studies cited to show the benefits of high self-esteem — or the problems associated with low self-esteem — it makes sense to ask just what this phrase signifies and how the concept has been measured.
How have researchers operationalized the concept? The answer is that they have, in effect, simply asked experimental subjects how favorably they regard themselves. More important, even if every single test was top- notch, there is no reason to think that any two of them are comparable.
Moreover, the very fact of defining low self-esteem in relative terms means that no intervention can ever make any headway; half the population will, of course, always fall below the median on any scale.
But let us assume for the sake of the argument that we find none of these facts — or any other methodological criticisms that have been offered of the field 5 — particularly troubling.
Let us assume that all the self-esteem studies to date, all 10, of them, can be taken at face value.
Even so, the findings that emerge from this literature are not especially encouraging for those who would like to believe that feeling good about oneself brings about a variety of benefits. I am ignoring here the vast number of studies that have treated self-esteem as a dependent rather than an independent variable — that is, those that have tried to figure out what causes self-esteem to go up or down rather than investigating whether such fluctuation affects other things.
While psychologists have been interested for decades in the way individuals think and feel about themselves, the most recent surge of interest in the concept, which has involved the formation of self-esteem councils around the country and the dissemination of classroom curricula, began in with the much-publicized report of a state-funded task force in California.
The point, presumably, was to reassure a skeptical public that claims about the value of self-esteem were based not on wishful thinking but on hard data.
There is no question but that many of the researchers who contributed to this volume earnestly hoped to prove exactly that. Thus, it is all the more significant, and perhaps even somewhat poignant, that the data refused to cooperate.
In a passage understandably seized on by critics of the self-esteem movement, sociologist Neil Smelser conceded in his introduction to the book that his colleagues had come up virtually empty-handed: The associations between self-esteem and its expected consequences are mixed, insignificant, or absent.
The nonrelationship holds between self-esteem and teenage pregnancy, self-esteem and child abuse, self-esteem and most cases of alcohol and drug abuse. If the association between self-esteem and behavior is so often reported to be weak, even less can be said for the causal relationship between the two.
Conversely if we can press the metaphor a bitlow self-esteem is thought to weaken the immunity to these illnesses. But what do the data say? Some research, to be sure, has turned up an inverse relationship between self-esteem and delinquency or deviance fighting, stealing, destroying property, and so on.
But these studies either have found that relationship to be remarkably slight 8 or else have been designed so poorly as to raise questions about the validity of their findings.
For example, one recent survey of teenagers discovered a moderate negative correlation between deviance and self-esteem, but the only teens that had been questioned were upper-middle-class students at a prep school. Their strong intuition is that violent behavior does not typically result from low self- esteem, nor do people skilled at conflict resolution always seem to have high self-esteem.
Some research has provided qualified support for this conclusion, 11 which, if borne out, would seem to caution against making our primary goal the elevation of self-esteem.
If being part of an armed gang can succeed in helping someone to feel better about himself, then feeling better about oneself is not the last word in social vaccines. On the other hand, a reanalysis of some older data found no support for the idea that delinquency has this effect — but neither did it support the premise that delinquency is caused by an absence of self-esteem in the first place.
Are people who feel good about themselves more likely to help, share, and care? Most of the studies found the relationship between how people felt about themselves and how likely they were to reach out to others to be either weak or nonexistent.
In other cases, the correlation was positive but dependent on other variables, such as gender or similarity between the helper and the helped. In sum, high self-esteem appears to offer no guarantee of inclining people toward prosocial behavior — or even steering them away from antisocial behavior.
Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement Altruism aside, the idea that people who regard themselves favorably ought to be able to learn and work more effectively seems not so much a plausible hypothesis as a matter of plain common sense.Argumentative Thesis Statement Example # 2 Good Thesis statement: “Global warming is a myth.” It is a good thesis statement because it has a precise subject which is arguable.
Feb 07, · Casual Argument Essay. 04 February The Media and the Redefinition of Beauty. The media, along with its unrealistic standards about meeting the criteria of the ideal beautiful image is continuing to cause low self-esteem, especially amongst women and young adults.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It is difficult to define the genre into which essays . ABOUT US. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing services each and every time you place an order.
We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. [Essay] Emerson’s Argument for Self-reliance as a Significant Factor in a Flourishing Life Kathleen O’Dwyer* Emerson’s philosophy of self-reliance, self-reference and self-responsibility has a relevance and an minds who claim an unchanging allegiance to a set image with assertions of.
Sep 04, · Words: Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: One criticism however is that while the information is informative, it is at times a bit too concise and inadequate in terms of the complexity and numerous variables related to self-esteem and self-image issues.