Chemistry in its element: End promo Chris Smith Hello - this week fertilisers, fire bombs, phossy jaw and food additives. Nina Notman Phosphorus is a non-metal that sits just below nitrogen in group 15 of the periodic table.
Zinc Phosphorus Phosphorus is essential to every living cell. The organic phosphatic compound deoxyribonucleic acid DNA provides the genetic code for life, and adenosine triphosphate ATP is essential for cellular energy conversion. In agriculture, phosphorus, along with nitrogen and potassium, is one of three major plant nutrients.
Most phosphorus is used to make phosphoric acid of high purity necessary for some food processing and for etching semi-conductors. It is known as thermal phosphoric acid and is made by burning phosphorus in moist air. However most phosphoric acid needed to make fertilizers need not be very pure and is more cheaply made directly from rock phosphate ores and not via the element.
Elemental phosphorus is also used to manufacture other chemical intermediates products used in the manufacturing processes for other chemical products.
The uses of some of the key phosphorus compounds, such as phosphorus trichloride, phosphorous acid, the phosphorus sulfides, sodium hypophosphite, phosphine and the phosphides are discussed in this unit. Phosphoric acid and the phosphates are very widely used.
Red phosphorus is used in pyrotechnics and matches. It is also used as a flame retardant in plastics particularly polyamides where its rapid oxidation consumes all the oxygen present, thereby stopping the fire. Vietnam has increased capacity rapidly over the last decade and is now the largest exporter of the element.
Chemical Economic Handbook, Phosphorus and Phosphorus Chemicals, IHS February Manufacture of white phosphorus Elemental phosphorus production is by an electrothermal process and consequently the energy demand is very high.
Each tonne of phosphorus produced requires about 14 MWh. Its manufacture is carried out only where comparatively cheap energy, such as hydroelectric power, is available. The main producers are in Kazakhstan, China and the United States.
The most important source is fluoroapatite, 3Ca3 PO4 2. Impurities present include calcium and magnesium carbonates, iron lll oxide, aluminium oxide, and silica. To optimize production efficiency, the feed of phosphate rock into a furnace needs to be as uniform as possible.
To achieve this, phosphate rock is heated strongly in an oven usually a rotating calciner which results in the fusion of small particles to form the hard nodules required for satisfactory furnace operation. The furnace, containing three vertical carbon electrodes, is fed with a mixture of coke, sand and phosphate rock in a mass ratio of, typically, The reaction may be represented as: Gaseous phosphorus and carbon monoxide, from the top of the furnace, are passed into a spray of water at K.
Most of the phosphorus mp K condenses. Condensation is completed using cold water. The carbon monoxide is either burnt off or recycled as a source of fuel.
It can be used in the production process for the preparation of the nodules from the phosphate rock, or in some instances is sold to local power producers. Molten calcium silicate slag and an alloy of iron and phosphorus, known as ferrophosphorus are removed separately from the base of the furnace.
The ferro-phosphorus can be added to sheet steel to prevent sticking of sheets or added to iron to improve stiffening. This improves machineability in certain steels.
Some calcium silicate is used as low-grade hardcore.Phosphorus (P), nonmetallic chemical element of the nitrogen family (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table) that at room temperature is a colourless, semitransparent, soft, waxy solid that glows in the dark.
atomic number 15 atomic weight melting point (white) °C ( °F) boiling point (white). The phosphorus distills out of the furnace and is condensed into a solid or burned to form P 4 O The preparation of many other phosphorus compounds begins with P 4 O The acids and phosphates are useful as fertilizers and in the chemical industry.
phosphorus in the second of these three reactions. The answer is × kg P 4O Find the atomic mass for elements, the molecular mass for molecular compounds, and the formula mass for ionic Chapter 10 Chemical Calculations and Chemical .
The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. Nina Notman with the tale of Phosphorus, the element extracted from the golden stream, otherwise known as urine. An element is the basic chemical building block of matter; it is the simplest chemical substance.
Elements vary from being a small percentage to more than 30% of the atoms around us. Chemical symbols are useful to concisely represent the elements present in a substance. Introduction to p Block Elements.
Introduction to Carbon Family. Anomalous Behaviour of Fluorine. These allotropes show different physical properties.
However, their chemical properties are comparable. Allotropes of Phosphorus. In this chapter, we will look at the allotropes of phosphorus. This element exists in a few allotropic forms.