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Published online Sep This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Consumers of research researchers, administrators, educators and clinicians frequently use standard critical appraisal tools to evaluate the quality of published research reports.
However, there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate critical appraisal tool for allied health research. We summarized the content, intent, construction and psychometric properties of published, currently available critical appraisal tools to identify common elements and their relevance to allied health research.
Methods A systematic review was undertaken of published critical appraisal tools sourced from papers located on electronic databases and the Internet. The tools were classified according to the study design for which they were intended. Their items were then classified into one of 12 criteria based on their intent.
Commonly occurring items were identified. The empirical basis for construction of the tool, the method by which overall quality of the study was established, the psychometric properties of the critical appraisal tools and whether guidelines were provided for their use were also recorded.
Results Eighty-seven percent of critical appraisal tools were specific to a research design, with most tools having been developed for experimental studies.
There was considerable variability in items contained in the critical appraisal tools. Twelve percent of available tools were developed using specified empirical research. Forty-nine percent of the critical appraisal tools summarized the quality appraisal into a numeric summary score.
Few critical appraisal tools had documented evidence of validity of their items, or reliability of use. Conclusions There was considerable variability in intent, components, construction and psychometric properties of published critical appraisal tools for research reports.
No tool was specific to allied health research requirements. Thus interpretation of critical appraisal of research reports currently needs to be considered in light of the properties and intent of the critical appraisal tool chosen for the task.
Background Consumers of research clinicians, researchers, educators, administrators frequently use standard critical appraisal tools to evaluate the quality and utility of published research reports [ 1 ]. Critical appraisal tools provide analytical evaluations of the quality of the study, in particular the methods applied to minimise biases in a research project [ 2 ].
As these factors potentially influence study results, and the way that the study findings are interpreted, this information is vital for consumers of research to ascertain whether the results of the study can be believed, and transferred appropriately into other environments, such as policy, further research studies, education or clinical practice.
Hence, choosing an appropriate critical appraisal tool is an important component of evidence-based practice. In addition, it seems that consumers of research are faced with a large number of critical appraisal tools from which to choose. This is evidenced by the recent report by the Agency for Health Research Quality in which 93 critical appraisal tools for quantitative studies were identified [ 6 ].
Such choice may pose problems for research consumers, as dissimilar findings may well be the result when different critical appraisal tools are used to evaluate the same research report [ 6 ].
Critical appraisal tools can be broadly classified into those that are research design-specific and those that are generic. Design-specific tools contain items that address methodological issues that are unique to the research design [ 57 ]. This precludes comparison however of the quality of different study designs [ 8 ].
To attempt to overcome this limitation, generic critical appraisal tools have been developed, in an attempt to enhance the ability of research consumers to synthesise evidence from a range of quantitative and or qualitative study designs for instance [ 9 ].
There is no evidence that generic critical appraisal tools and design-specific tools provide a comparative evaluation of research designs.
The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material and seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the data analysis in case study research. First, I would like to discuss the weakness of research in general. Primary issues are researcher bias, lack of funding in all areas, asking the wrong questions or focusing on the wrong issue, lack of reproducibility, lack of proper context, and many others Now, in regard to quantitative research, I. Step'by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research Michaei Coughian, Patricia Cronin, Frances Ryan Abstract discuss the limitations and or strengths within a research study. Research texts and journals refer to critiquing the literature, critical analysis, reviewing the.
Moreover, there appears to be little consensus regarding the most appropriate items that should be contained within any critical appraisal tool. This paper is concerned primarily with critical appraisal tools that address the unique properties of allied health care and research [ 10 ].
This approach was taken because of the unique nature of allied health contacts with patients, and because evidence-based practice is an emerging area in allied health [ 10 ].
The availability of so many critical appraisal tools for instance [ 6 ] may well prove daunting for allied health practitioners who are learning to critically appraise research in their area of interest. For the purposes of this evaluation, allied health is defined as encompassing " These include units primarily concerned with physiotherapy, speech therapy, family panning, dietary advice, optometry occupational therapy The unique nature of allied health practice needs to be considered in allied health research.
Allied health research thus differs from most medical research, with respect to: An example of this is in research into low back pain, where instead of diagnosis being made on location and chronicity of pain as is common [ 12 ], it would be made on the spinal structure and the nature of the dysfunction underpinning the symptoms, which is arrived at by a staged and replicable clinical reasoning process [ 1013 ].
Methods In supplementary data [see additional file 1 ]. Data organization and extraction Two independent researchers PK, NMW participated in all aspects of this review, and they compared and discussed their findings with respect to inclusion of critical appraisal tools, their intent, components, data extraction and item classification, construction and psychometric properties.
Disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third member of the team KG.Physical examination in undergraduate medical education: Overview. Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician’s daily activity .PE examination and communication skills are of crucial importance for the doctor-patient relationship, patient safety and the efficiency of medical treatment [2 – 4].It is known that the risk of medical errors and.
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a clinical diagnostic tool The Mini-Mental State Examination: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Clinical Instrument Martine Simard is a Research Fellow, Department of Psychiatry is that it can cause interpretation problems—particularly in .
Many a times a student who is otherwise good may get anxious or confuse(d) under strict exam conditions and may not perform up to the mark. Secondly, many exams encourage teaching to the test practice. This is to say, teaching a fixed curriculum focussed (focused) on passing a specific exam.
This method limits the curriculum to a set range of knowledge and skills. No system for evaluating either quality or strength, no matter how good it seems to be, can completely resolve the inherent tension between these strengths (or .
This collection of evidence of learning was evaluated at the midterm and final examination by a synchronous tripod of assessors-the ‘self’, a peer, and the instructor- to provide a formative and summative evaluation.
including strengths and weaknesses of week’s learn- interpretation, expectations, an d understanding of the. Office o WVAdultEd Instructor Handbook Section 5 Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses Adult Education (AdultEd) Program f Adult Education and Workforce Development.