I was traveling during much of this period. I have waited until now for an opportunity to join the discussion in part for this reason, but mainly for another: In my judgment some of the most important issues concerning the Hiroshima decision cannot be properly addressed without confronting the complexity of the evidence problems involved--and, too, the porous nature of the available record.
May This essay is derived from a guest lecture at Harvard, which incorporated an earlier talk at Northeastern. When I finished grad school in computer science I went to art school to study painting. A Alternatives to oil essay of people seemed surprised that someone interested in computers would also be interested in painting.
They seemed to think that hacking and painting were very different kinds of work-- that hacking Alternatives to oil essay cold, precise, and methodical, and that painting was the frenzied expression of some primal urge.
Both of these images are wrong. Hacking and painting have a lot in common. Along with composers, architects, and writers, what hackers and painters are trying to do is make good things. Computer science is a grab bag of tenuously related areas thrown together by an accident of history, like Yugoslavia.
In the middle you have people working on something like the natural history of computers-- studying the behavior of algorithms for routing data through networks, for example. And then at the other extreme you have the hackers, who are trying to write interesting software, and for whom computers are just a medium of expression, as concrete is for architects or paint for painters.
Sometimes what the hackers do is called "software engineering," but this term is just as misleading. Good software designers are no more engineers than architects are. It falls between what and how: What and how should not be kept too separate.
But hacking can certainly be more than just deciding how to implement some spec. Perhaps one day "computer science" will, like Yugoslavia, get broken up into its component parts.
That might be a good thing. Especially if it meant independence for my native land, hacking. But the people at either end, the hackers and the mathematicians, are not actually doing science. But for the hackers this label is a problem. So instead of doing what they really want to do, which is to design beautiful software, hackers in universities and research labs feel they ought to be writing research papers.
In the best case, the papers are just a formality. Hackers write cool software, and then write a paper about it, and the paper becomes a proxy for the achievement represented by the software. But often this mismatch causes problems. Number two, research must be substantial-- and awkward systems yield meatier papers, because you can write about the obstacles you have to overcome in order to get things done.
Nothing yields meaty problems like starting with the wrong assumptions. As Ricky Ricardo used to say, "Lucy, you got a lot of explaining to do. This kind of work is hard to convey in a research paper.
So why do universities and research labs continue to judge hackers by publications? For the same reason that "scholastic aptitude" gets measured by simple-minded standardized tests, or the productivity of programmers gets measured in lines of code.
These tests are easy to apply, and there is nothing so tempting as an easy test that kind of works. Measuring what hackers are actually trying to do, designing beautiful software, would be much more difficult.
You need a good sense of design to judge good design. The only external test is time.
Over time, beautiful things tend to thrive, and ugly things tend to get discarded. Unfortunately, the amounts of time involved can be longer than human lifetimes.
I think hackers just have to resign themselves to having a large random component in their reputations. In this they are no different from other makers. The influence of fashion is not nearly so great in hacking as it is in painting. There are worse things than having people misunderstand your work.
A worse danger is that you will yourself misunderstand your work. Related fields are where you go looking for ideas. If you find yourself in the computer science department, there is a natural temptation to believe, for example, that hacking is the applied version of what theoretical computer science is the theory of.
All the time I was in graduate school I had an uncomfortable feeling in the back of my mind that I ought to know more theory, and that it was very remiss of me to have forgotten all that stuff within three weeks of the final exam.
Now I realize I was mistaken.Elizabeth’s Message to Readers WARNING: CONTAINS SPOILERS. It was from my longtime cold reader that I had my earliest indication that my thirteenth novel With No One as Witness had the potential to touch my worldwide readers on a deep and emotional level.
When Susan had completed her reading of the second draft of the novel, the first thing she told me was that, when she reached the death of. The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong. The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.
Raymond O. Faulkner [, , Chronicle Books, San. WOA!
World Population Awareness is a non-profit web publication seeking to inform people about overpopulation, unsustainability, and overconsumption; the impacts, including depletion of natural resources, water, oil, soil, fertilizers, species loss, malnutrition, poverty, displacement of people, conflict; and what can be done about it: women's advancement, education, reproductive health care.
If you're trying to lose weight, limiting refined white sugar is a step in the right direction: one cup contains calories and grams of sugar. But when. Elizabeth’s Message to Readers WARNING: CONTAINS SPOILERS. It was from my longtime cold reader that I had my earliest indication that my thirteenth novel With No One as Witness had the potential to touch my worldwide readers on a deep and emotional level.
When Susan had completed her reading of the second draft of the novel, the first thing she told me was that, when she reached the death of. WOA! World Population Awareness is a non-profit web publication seeking to inform people about overpopulation, unsustainability, and overconsumption; the impacts, including depletion of natural resources, water, oil, soil, fertilizers, species loss, malnutrition, poverty, displacement of people, conflict; and what can be done about it: women's advancement, education, reproductive health care.