Effects[ edit ] The effectiveness of tobacco marketing in increasing consumption of tobacco products is widely documented.
WomanEconomic Framework The economic framework of the British press changed dramatically between and As in many other developed nations, in Britain the most salient qualities of the press's economic framework are concentrated, international, and cross-media ownership patterns and the increased intensity of economic competition that these factors entail.
In addition, newspaper finances are organized on what Independent editor Simon Kelner calls an "uneconomic" basis, largely because of circulation wars. Finally, all newspapers, but particularly the broadsheets, heavily depend on advertising revenues.
The Changing Economic Environment Inthe industry appeared to be in terminal crisis, and many newspapers appeared unlikely to yield profits in the near future. As of the early s, this was no longer true because newspaper economics were transformed during the s.
While critics argued that unfriendly labor practices and the greater reliance on "newszak" were too great a price to pay, others maintained that the economic situation of the early s was not sustainable. The most controversial transformation was also the most symbolic.
In JanuaryRupert Murdoch suddenly moved production of his newspapers to Wapping, away from the storied Fleet Street home of most national papers. At the same time, he switched distribution from rail to trucks, taking advantage of the latter's weaker unionization.
The new plant contained modernized equipment, including computer equipment that newspaper unions mainly the National Graphical Association had blocked for two decades.
The new plant was no secret; however, before the move, union leadership did not realize that the plant was "already fully equipped and ready to operate without any of the existing printing work-force" Tunstall.
In a Thatcherite political atmosphere favorable to management, the subsequent strike was broken, and a power shift away from the unions quickly followed. In the next several months, and continuing into the twenty-first century, newspapers enacted numerous cost-cutting measures to enhance profitability.
Murdoch's move did not occur in isolation.
Eddie Shah had already broken union power in his Warrington-based regional freesheet empire, and other newspapers had plans underway before to take similar modernizing actions. Cost-cutting measures included greater reliance on freelance journalists and short-term contracts.
According to Franklin, whereas in one in 10 journalists free-lanced, by between one-fourth and one-third did so—and not generally by choice. Critics pointed out that this transformation compromised quality. Freelance journalists, paid only when they delivered copy, were rarely inclined to pursue slowly-developing investigative stories, and their reduced job security led to greater complaisance with management.
Post-Wapping newspapers also relied more heavily on news agency reports and ready-made copy such as syndicated crossword puzzles and television listings and took advantage of multi-skilling and "direct inputting.
New technology allowed journalist to enter copy directly into the computer, obviating the need for typesetters. Salary Structure For most of its history, British journalism remained a profession with low wages and insecure working conditions. The success of the National Union of Journalists after World War II helped to produce relatively high salaries for journalists and four-day workweeks for many by the s, while the National Graphical Association helped make British printers among the highest-paid in the world.
In the aftermath of the Wapping move, salaries languished and working conditions deteriorated. Franklin reported in a median salary of 32, pounds for men and 22, pounds for women. These figures masked a great disparity between freelance and full-time journalists, as well as between those working on the national press and those on the regional or local press.
Outside London, salaries of under 15, pounds were common, even for editors. Infreelance journalists, paid piecerate for copy, could earn as little as 4 for a news story in a provincial paper and would earn no more than 10 for even a lead story.
That was if they were lucky; newspapers allegedly rewrote freelance contributions on occasion, thereby denying the contributor payment. At the upper end, the "star" journalists that Tunstall called the new journalistic elite could earn very high salaries.
Julie Burchill reportedly earnedpounds for a weekly Mail on Sunday column in the early s, before switching to the Sunday Times. William Rees-Mogg simultaneously earned 60, pounds for one weekly column in the Independent andpounds for two columns per week in The Times.
Tunstall estimated that in the early s the average fee was about pounds per column, leading to annual salaries typically between 25, pounds and 75, pounds for weekly columnists. Star interviewers or "Agony Aunts" could earn similar figures. Such high salaries at the upper end were more than offset by the savings in "newsgathering" costs represented by staffing cuts.
Influence of Special-Interest Lobbies on Editorial Policy Staffing cuts coincided with the rise of Britain's public relations industry. This development enhanced the influence of special-interest lobbies on the content of newspapers as well as other media.A Critical Analysis of a Print Advertisement in the United States PAGES 3.
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